• Research Article

    In Vitro Cytotoxicity against Human Cancer Cell and 3T3-L1 Cell, Total Polyphenol Content and DPPH Radical Scavenging of Codonopsis lanceolata according to the Concentration of Ethanol Solvent
    Hee-Ock Boo, Jeong-Hun Park, Moon-Soon Lee, Soo-Jeong Kwon and Hag-Hyun Kim
    This study was executed to evaluate the phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging rate, and the cytotoxic effect in human cancer cell, 3T3-L1 ... + READ MORE
    This study was executed to evaluate the phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging rate, and the cytotoxic effect in human cancer cell, 3T3-L1 cell from C. lanceolata extracts at various ethanol concentration. Total polyphenol and flavonoid content of the C. lanceolata at various ethanol concentration showed the high amount in 70%, 100% ethanol extract. The DPPH radical scavenging activity progressively increased in a dose-dependent manner, and showed the highest in 100% ethanol extract. The cytotoxic effect against human cancer cell of the C. lanceolata was higher in 50% and 70% ethanol extracts. In particular, the cytotoxic effect in MCF-7 cell was relatively higher than in other cells. The IC50 (concentration causing 50% cell death) value showed the highest on MCF-7 cell (538.39 ㎍/㎖) in 70% ethanol extract, and exhibited significant activity against Hela cell (637.87 ㎍/㎖), Calu-6 cell (728.64 ㎍/㎖). The extract of 70% ethanol at 1,000 ㎍/㎖ exhibited a pronounced cytotoxic effect on 3T3-L1 cell comparable to that of the other extracts, and reduced in a concentration-dependent manner. - COLLAPSE
    June 2018
  • Research Article

    Anti-inflammatory Effects of Abeliophyllum distichum Flower Extract and Associated MAPKs and NF-κB Pathway in Raw264.7 Cells
    Jin-Wook Lee and Yoon-Joong Kang
    Abeliophyllum distichum is a medicinal plant used in regional traditional medicine to relieve pain in inflammatory processes. In this study, anti-inflammatory effects ... + READ MORE
    Abeliophyllum distichum is a medicinal plant used in regional traditional medicine to relieve pain in inflammatory processes. In this study, anti-inflammatory effects of Abeliophyllum distichum flower (ADF) extract were examined. Furthermore, possible molecular mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects were dissected. The anti-inflammatory activity was investigated by inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in murine macrophage-like cell line Raw264.7 cells. The measurement of the induced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were carried out by ELISA. The phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and MAPK, and the nuclear expression of nuclear factor NF-κB p65 were investigated by Western blot analysis. The extract of ADF significantly decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, the extract suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 in activated cells. Our findings provide evidence for the popular use of Abeliophylli distichum in inflammation around Goesan region and also suggest that the flower extract has potential therapeutic benefits against various inflammatory diseases. - COLLAPSE
    June 2018
  • Research Article

    Anti-Inflammatory Effect of the Root extracts from Hibiscus syriacus in LPS-Stimulated RAW264.7 Cells
    Ha Na Kim, Su Bin Park, Gwang Hun Park, Hyun Ji Eo, Jeong Ho Song, Hae Yun Kwon and Jin Boo Jeong
    Hibiscus syriacus (H. syriacus) as the national flower of Korea has been used as the herbal medicine in Asia. In this study, ... + READ MORE
    Hibiscus syriacus (H. syriacus) as the national flower of Korea has been used as the herbal medicine in Asia. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of 70% ethanol extracts from the root of Hibiscus syriacus (RHS-E70) and elucidated the potential signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. RHS-E70 dose-dependently suppressed NO production by inhibiting iNOS and IL-β expression in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. RHS-E70 inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB-α, which contributed to the inhibition of p65 nuclear accumulation and NF-κB activation. Furthermore, RHS-E70 suppressed the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, which results in the inhibition of ATF2 phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear accumulation. These results indicate that RHS-E70 may exert anti- inflammatory activity by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK/ATF2 signaling. From these findings, RHS-E70 has potential to be a candidate for the development of chemopreventive or therapeutic agents for the inflammatory diseases. - COLLAPSE
    June 2018
  • Research Article

    Anticancer Activity of the Branch Extracts from Vaccinium oldhamii through Cyclin D1 Proteasomal Degradation in Human Cancer Cells
    Su Bin Park, Ha Na Kim, Gwang Hun Park, Ho-Jun Son, Hyun Ji Eo, Jeong Ho Song, Hun Min Song, Ji Ae Park and Jin Boo Jeong
    In this study, we investigated the effect of the extracts from Vaccinium oldhamii on cell proliferation and the regulatory mechanisms of cyclin ... + READ MORE
    In this study, we investigated the effect of the extracts from Vaccinium oldhamii on cell proliferation and the regulatory mechanisms of cyclin D1 protein level in human cancer cells. The branch extracts from Vaccinium oldhamii (VOB) showed higher inhibitor effect against the cell growth than leave extracts (VOL) and fruit extracts (VOF) in human colorectal cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, non-small lung cancer, pancreatic cancer and liver cancer cells. In addition, VOB decreased cyclin D1 level at both protein and mRNA level. MG132 treatment attenuated VOB-mediated cyclin D1 downregulation. A point mutation of threonine-286 to alanine attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by VOB. In addition, the inhibition of nuclear export by leptomycin B (LMB) attenuated cyclin D1 degradation by VOB. But, the treatment of PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), LiCl (GSK3β inhibitor), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor) or BAY 11-7082 (IκK inhibitor) did not affect VOB-induced cyclin D1 degradation. In conclusion, VOB induced cyclin D1 degradation through redistribution of cyclin D1 from the nucleus to cytoplasm via T286 phosphorylation of cyclin D1, which resulted in the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. - COLLAPSE
    June 2018
  • Research Article

    Antioxidant Activity and Inhibitory Effects on Oxidative DNA Damage of Callus from Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai
    Tae Won Jang and Jae Ho Park
    In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity and protective effects against oxidative DNA damage of the ethyl acetate fraction from the ... + READ MORE
    In this study, we evaluated the antioxidant activity and protective effects against oxidative DNA damage of the ethyl acetate fraction from the callus of Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai (ECA). Callus of A. distichum was induced on MS medium containing NAA (1 ㎎/L) and 2,4-D (1 ㎎/L), and a sufficient amount was obtained for the extraction by subculture. Acteoside was analyzed and quantified (0.39 ㎎/g callus) from ECA using the high-performance liquid chromatography- photodiode array detector method. ECA showed very high antioxidative activity as revealed by DPPH and ABTS scavenging assays. The IC50 values were 12.4 and 6.8 ㎍/㎖, respectively. ECA showed protective effects against oxidative DNA damage evaluated by using ψX-174 RF I plasmid DNA. It also inhibited DNA damage by suppressing the oxidative stress-induced protein and mRNA levels of γ-H2AX and p53 in NIH/3T3 cells. In conclusion, ECA protects against oxidative DNA damage through its powerful antioxidant activity. - COLLAPSE
    June 2018
  • Research Article

    Antioxidant and Biological Activity in the Leaves of Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis L.)
    Kyung Jun Lee, Jung-Ro Lee, Myoung-Jae Shin, Gyu-Taek Cho, Ho-Sun Lee, Kyung-Ho Ma, Gi-An Lee and Jong-Wook Chung
    The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) is a red-grained legume that has a number of essential nutrients and is used in traditional ... + READ MORE
    The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) is a red-grained legume that has a number of essential nutrients and is used in traditional dishes in Asia. Adzuki bean industrial by-products are also a potential low-cost source of some unique bioactive polyphenols. Hence, here, the authors aimed to perform a comparative study of the phytochemical profiles of the leaves and seeds of the adzuki bean and compare their antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibition, and tyrosinase inhibition activity. The authors assessed antioxidant activity by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, PR, TPC, and SOD assays, which showed wide variation, respectively. From the relative antioxidant capacity index results, 10 adzuki bean landraces were selected to compare for phytochemicals and bioactivity using leaf and seed extracts. Antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibition, and tyrosinase inhibition activity in the leaf extracts were higher than in the seed extracts, and there were more flavonols and isoflavones in the leaf extracts than in the seed extracts. This study demonstrated that adzuki bean leaf extracts could be a new natural antioxidant or antidiabetic agent and a skin whitener and can also be used in industrial applications. - COLLAPSE
    June 2018
  • Research Article

    Asian Plum Diversity Based on Phenotypic Traits in Republic of Korea
    Jung-Hyun Kwon, Eun-Young Nam, Ji-Hae Jun, Kyeong-Ho Chung, Seok-Kyu Yun, Sung-Jong Kim and Yun-Soo Do
    The phenotypic traits of 63 Asian plum varieties were investigated for three years to select those with superior qualities for breeding. Eight ... + READ MORE
    The phenotypic traits of 63 Asian plum varieties were investigated for three years to select those with superior qualities for breeding. Eight morphological characteristics of the flowers and fruits (e.g., stigma position, fruit skin, and flesh color) were evaluated. Phenological characteristics (e.g., blooming time and ripening time) were also monitored. Being useful traits for breeding, fruit quality factors (e.g., fruit weight, skin color, flesh color, soluble solids content, and titratable acidity) were evaluated as well. The majority of the fruits were cordate (36%) and circular (23%) in shape. Approximately 78% of the varieties showed a red skin color, whereas 67% had yellowish fruit flesh. Fruit ripening occurred from June 28th to September 5th, spanning 69 days. The average fruit weight and soluble solids content were 77.2 g and 12.2 °Brix, respectively. Regarding correlations among the characteristics, the most significant correlation coefficients were for the ripening time and fruit size parameters. Such information of Asian plum varieties will be useful for future breeding programs. - COLLAPSE
    June 2018
  • Research Article

    Ameliorative Effects of Combinative Injection of Ginko biloba Leaves Extract and Vitamin C on Ischemia/Reperfusion Liver Damages Model
    Guang-Hua Xie, Sun Eun Choi, Myung-Jae Mun, Jae-Hun Jeong and Kwang-Hyun Park
    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI) is linked with high mortality rate. Several agents have been developed so far to reduce the risk of ... + READ MORE
    Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI) is linked with high mortality rate. Several agents have been developed so far to reduce the risk of HIRI. In this study, we investigated the effects of combined treatment of Ginko biloba leaves extract and vitamin C (GLEVC) on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury. To explore the protective effects of GLEVC on HIRI rats model were tested. After the development of HIRI by using clamping method rats were then randomly divided into four groups. Different doses of GLEVC were administered in HIRI rat model. The level of ALT, AST, SOD and MDA content in serum were detected in HIRI groups. Moreover, the activity of SOD, content of MDA, and GSH in hepatic tissue were also examined. Bcl-2 and Bax protein expression were detected by immunohistochemical staining method. Compared with sham group, GLEVC has the protective effect on the HIRI-induced model. Level of ALT, AST, and MDA in blood were significantly lower in GLEVC group compared with HIRI-induced group. Moreover, SOD activity and GSH were increased in GLEVC group whereas MDA content was reduced by GLEVC treatment. Furthermore, HIRI-induced Bax protein was reduced upon GLEVC treatment, whereas Bcl-2 protein expression was enhanced. These results demonstrate that GLEVC treatment may provide potential ameliorative therapy by reducing damaged signaling mechanism in hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury model. - COLLAPSE
    June 2018