• Research Article

    Anti-microbial Activities of Ten Lauraceae Species against Propionibacterium acnes

    여드름 유발균 Propionibacterium acnes에 대한 녹나무과 10종의 항균활성

    Ju Sung Cho, Lai Won Chi, Bo Kook Jang, Heon Sang Jeong, Cheol Hee Lee

    조주성, 지래원, 장보국, 정헌상, 이철희

    This study was performed to develop a new natural antimicrobial materials by analyzing the effect of extracts obtained from Ten Lauraceae Species ... + READ MORE
    This study was performed to develop a new natural antimicrobial materials by analyzing the effect of extracts obtained from Ten Lauraceae Species on the inhibitory activity against Propionibacterium acnes. The plant materials were collected from Wando and Jeju islands, and the antimicrobial activity of the crude extracts was examined by the agar diffusion method with different part (i.e., leaf and branch), solvents (i.e., distilled water, 80% ethanol, and 100% methanol) and at different ultrasonic extracting times (i.e., 15, 30, and 45 minutes). The control agents used were synthetic antimicrobials, methylparaben and phenoxyethanol, at concentrations of 0.4, 1, 2, and 4 ㎎/disc. Altogether, extracts of 10 species used in the study showed inhibitory activity, which confirmed their antimicrobial action against acnes. Among these, leaves of Laurus nobilis L. which was extracted in 80% ethanol for 45 min showed the largest clear zone (19.8 ㎜). Leaves of L. nobilis L., showing highest antimicrobial activities among 10 species, were successively reextracted with n-hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate and n-butanol. As a results, in all fractions except butanol, clear zone above 10 ㎜ were formed. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest inhibitory activity (13.3 ㎜) and the inhibitory activity was significantly higher than that of crude extract (10.2 ㎜) and phenoxyethanol as a control (12.5 ㎜). - COLLAPSE
    October 2018
  • Research Article

    Screening of Plant Extracts with Cholinesterase Inhibition Activity

    콜린 에스테라제 저해효과 보유 식물 추출물 탐색

    Saet-Byul Park, Jeong-Hoon Lee, Hyung-Don Kim, Kyung-Hae Soe, Hyeon-Soo Jeong, Dong-Hwi Kim, Seung-Eun Lee

    박샛별, 이정훈, 김형돈, 서경혜, 정현수, 김동휘, 이승은

    This study was conducted to select candidates from plant resources for the purpose of improving or treating Alzheimer’s disease, a type of ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to select candidates from plant resources for the purpose of improving or treating Alzheimer’s disease, a type of dementia. One hundred and eighty-four plant extracts at a final concentration of 100 ㎍/㎖ were screened to determine their capacity to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by in vitro assay. From this AChE assay, seven plant extracts - including methanol ext. and water ext. of Phellaodendron amurense Rupr. (bark), methanol ext. of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (stamen/ovary), methanol ext. of Persicaria tinctoria H. GROSS (flower), methanol ext. of Coptis chinensis (rhizome), ethanol ext. of Cinnamomum cassia Blume(bark) and ethanol ext. of Carthamus tinctorius L. (fruit) - showed effective inhibition activity ranging from 18.7% to 63.1%. The selected extracts were testified their inhibition activities on AChE and BuChE (butyrylcholinesterase) at concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 200 ㎍/㎖. In the AChE assay, five extracts including methanol ext. of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (stamen/ovary), methanol ext. of Persicaria tinctoria H. GROSS (flower), methanol ext. of Coptis chinensis (rhizome), methanol ext. and water ext. of Phellaodendron amurense Rupr. (bark) showed inhibition activity of 15.0%~73.5%, 19.5%~63.5%, 81.6%~58.5%, 69.9%~80.5%, and 54.8%~78.3%, respectively, at concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 200 ㎍/㎖. In the BuChE assay, the extracts of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (stamen/ovary), Persicaria tinctoria H. GROSS (flower), and Coptis chinensis (rhizome) showed inhibitory capacities of 58.9~81.6%, 45.8%~72.4%, and 33.1%~55.4% at concentrations of 25, 50, 100, 200 ㎍/㎖, respectively. In conclusion, it is suggested that Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (stamen/ovary), Persicaria tinctoria H. GROSS, Coptis chinensis (rhizome) and Phellaodendron amurense Rupr. (bark) could be selected as candidate materials for improving or treating Alzheimer’s disease on the basis of further study. - COLLAPSE
    October 2018
  • Research Article

    Analysis of Sugars Content by Genotypes in 82 Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    무 유전자원 82 계통의 유리당 함량 분석

    Mi-Suk Seo, Joon-Hui Chung, Beom-Suk Park, Jung Sun Kim

    서미숙, 정준휘, 박범석, 김정선

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a species of the Brassicaceae family and an important root vegetable crop, produced worldwide. A total of ... + READ MORE
    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a species of the Brassicaceae family and an important root vegetable crop, produced worldwide. A total of 82 radish accessions with various morphological and physiological characteristics analyzed for total sugars content. These accessions includes five subspecies and classified as wild, wild-relative, traditional and improved cultivar. The four sugars, glucose, fructose, sucrose and maltose, showed various contents in 82 accessions. Total sugar content ranged from 5.64 to 46.68 ㎎/g and showed average 25.33 ㎎/g. Total sugar content was not statistically significant among the five subspecies, but individual sugar ratio varied. The wild, wild-relatives and traditional cultivars were not significantly among average total sugars content compared with improved cultivars. On the other hand, the wild and traditional cultivars were showed high ratio of individual sugars. These results could be valuable information for the development of new radish cultivars and regulation of sugars biosynthesis in radish. - COLLAPSE
    October 2018
  • Research Article

    Anti-inflammatory Activity of Extracts of Hovenia dulcis on Lipopolysaccharides-stimulated RAW264.7 Cells

    LPS로 유도된 RAW264.7 대식세포에 대한 헛개나무(Hovenia dulcis) 추출물의 항염증 효과

    Hyun Sim Woo†, Sun Min Lee†, Jeong Doo Heo, Min-Sung Lee, Yeong-Su Kim, Dae Wook Kim

    우현심†, 이선민†, 허정두, 이민성, 김영수, 김대욱

    In this study, the anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of different parts of Hovenia dulcis such as leaves, stems, and roots were ... + READ MORE
    In this study, the anti-inflammatory activities of the extracts of different parts of Hovenia dulcis such as leaves, stems, and roots were investigated. Among them, the roots extract (RE) showed the most potent suppressive effect against pro-inflammatory mediators in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage cells. RE induced dose-dependent reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and concomitantly reduced the production of NO and PGE2. Additionally, pre-treatment with RE significantly suppressed the production of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6, as well as mRNA levels. Moreover, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) were also strongly attenuated by RE in RAW264.7 cell. Furthermore, RE induced HO-1 expression through nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and increase HO-1 activity in RAW264.7 macrophages. Therefore, these results indicate that RE strongly inhibits LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking NF-kB activation, inhibiting MAPKs phosphorylation, and enhancing HO-1 expression in macrophages, suggesting that RE of H. dulicis and a major component, 27-O-protocatechuoylbetulinic acid could be applied as a valuable natural anti-inflammatory material. - COLLAPSE
    October 2018
  • Research Article

    Anti-inflammatory Effects of Various Mushrooms in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 Cells
    Kyung Hye Seo, Jeong-Yong Park, Hyung-Jun Noh, Ji Yeon Lee, Eun Young Lee, Jae-Gu Han, Jin Hyo Kim, Mi Sun Cheong
    Mushrooms have been widely cultivated and consumed as foods and herbal medicines owing to their various biological properties. However, few studies have ... + READ MORE
    Mushrooms have been widely cultivated and consumed as foods and herbal medicines owing to their various biological properties. However, few studies have evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of mushrooms. Here, we investigated the effects of mushroom extracts (MEs) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in macrophages (RAW264.7 cells). First, we extracted MEs with either water or ethanol. Using LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells, we measured cell proliferation and NO production. Gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 (IL-6), and IL-1β was assessed by RT-PCR, and protein abundance of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and phosphorylation of p65 were determined by immunoblotting. MEs prepared using both water and ethanol inhibited LPS-induced inflammation in RAW264.7 cells. Nitric oxide (NO) levels induced by LPS were reduced by treatment with MEs. Isaria japonica Yasuda water extracts and Umbilicaria esculenta (Miyoshi) Minks ethanol extracts significantly decreased the mRNA expression of inflammation-related cytokine genes including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β. Similarly, the protein abundance of iNOS and COX-2 was also decreased. The phosphorylation of p65, a subunit of nuclear factor-κB was at least partly suppressed by MEs. This study suggests that mushrooms could be included in the diet to prevent and treat macrophage-related chronic immune diseases. - COLLAPSE
    October 2018
  • Research Article

    Comparison of Growth Characteristics and Flavonoids Content by Different Cultivation Seasons in Buckwheat Germplasm

    메밀 유전자원 재배시기별 생육특성 및 플라보노이드 함량 비교

    Do Yoon Hyun, Muhammad Rauf, Sukyeung Lee, Ho Cheol Ko, Sejong Oh, Myung-Chul Lee, Yu-Mi Choi

    현도윤, Muhammad Rauf, 이수경, 고호철, 오세종, 이명철, 최유미

    In Korea, common and Tartary buckwheat are cultivated mainly in spring and fall, however the available buckwheat varieties are still very limited. ... + READ MORE
    In Korea, common and Tartary buckwheat are cultivated mainly in spring and fall, however the available buckwheat varieties are still very limited. In this study, we have evaluated buckwheat germplasm for agronomic traits and compared flavonoids contents in different cultivation period and collection area. In common buckwheat, the number of days from sowing to flowering was 40 and 31 days and from sowing to maturity took 90 and 69 days in spring and fall cultivation, respectively. The number of nodes and branches were higher in spring cultivation while the hundred seed weight was higher in fall cultivation. The average flavonoids contents in common buckwheat were 0.20 ㎎/g dry weight (DW) and 0.40 ㎎/g DW in spring and fall cultivation, respectively. The highest flavonoids content was detected in Jeonnam accessions with 0.29 ㎎/g DW and 0.43 ㎎/g DW during spring and fall cultivation, respectively. The flavonoids contents were varied from 1.5 to 2.5 times according to the collection area. These results suggest that the agronomic traits and flavonoids contents were vary depending on the cultivation environment and germplasm collection area. Therefore, it is necessary to select the material by considering the characteristics of the germplasm for breeding of new varieties. - COLLAPSE
    October 2018
  • Research Article

    Statistical Treatment on Amylose and Protein Contents in Rice Variety Germplasm Based on the Data Obtained from Analysis of Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS)

    NIRS 분석 Data에 의한 국내외 육성품종 벼 유전자원의 아밀로스 및 단백질 성분에 대한 통계분석

    Sejong Oh, Byungsoo Chae, Myung Chul Lee, Yu Mi Choi, Sukyeung Lee, Ho Cheol Ko, Muhammad Rauf, Do Yoon Hyun

    오세종, 채병수, 이명철, 최유미, 이수경, 고호철, Muhammad Rauf, 현도윤

    A statistical analysis for 3651 genetic resources collected from China (1,542), Japan (1,409), Korea (413), and India (287) was conducted using normal ... + READ MORE
    A statistical analysis for 3651 genetic resources collected from China (1,542), Japan (1,409), Korea (413), and India (287) was conducted using normal distribution, variability index value (VIV), analysis of variation (ANOVA) and Ducan’s multiple range test (DMRT) based on a data obtained from NIRS analysis. In normal distribution, the average protein content was 8.0%, whereas waxy type amylose and common rice amylose were found to be 8.7% and 22.7%, respectively. The protein contents ranged from 5.4 to 10.6% at the level of 95%. The waxy amylose and common rice amylose ranged from 5.9 to 11.5%, and from 16.9 to 28.5% at 95% confidence level, respectively. The VIV was 0.59 for protein, 0.64 for low amylose, and 0.81 for high amylose contents. The average amylose contents were 18.85% in Japanese, 19.99% in Korean, 20.27% in Chinese, and 25.46% in Indian resources, while the average protein contents were found to be 7.23% in Korean, 7.73% in Japanese, 8.01% in Chinese, and 8.17% in Indian resources. The ANOVA of amylose and protein content showed significant differences at the level of 0.01. The F-test for amylose content was 158.34, and for protein content 53.95 compared to critical value 3.78. The DMRT of amylose and protein content showed significant difference (p<0.01) between resources of different countries. Japanese resources had the lowest level of amylose contents, whereas, the lowest level of protein content was found in Korean resources compared to other origins. Indian resources showed the highest level of amylose and protein contents. It is recommended these results should be helpful to future breeding experiments. - COLLAPSE
    October 2018
  • Research Article

    Induction of A Chromosome-doubled Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.) by in vitro Colchicine Treatment

    기내 콜히친 처리에 의한 염색체 배가 감 식물체 유기

    Kyeong-Bok Ma, Kwang-Sik Cho, Hae-Won Jung, Ho-Jin Seo, Sam-Seok Kang

    마경복, 조광식, 정해원, 서호진, 강삼석

    This was carried out to develop a chromosome-doubled (12x) persimmon that will be used as a crossing parent to select seedless persimmon ... + READ MORE
    This was carried out to develop a chromosome-doubled (12x) persimmon that will be used as a crossing parent to select seedless persimmon cultivars with the change of the consumption trend recently. To obtain a chromosome-doubled (12x) persimmon, colchicine was applied at the meristem of seedlings in vitro derived from cross among hexaploid persimmon (Diopyros kaki Thunb.). These were treated with 0.03%, 0.05% and 0.1% colchicine respectively for doubling chromosome, and it was most effective at the concentration of 0.05% colchicine. After colchicine treatment, we conducted tests to elucidate conditions for inducing shoot and root development. As the result, the shoots grew best when cultivated at 1/2MS media plus 10 and 30 μM zeatin respectively, and the roots grew best when cultivated at 1/2MS media after dipping for 5 seconds at 10 mM NAA+5% DMSO. We also compared seedlings that have chromosome (6x) do not doubled and crossing parents (6x) and chromosome-doubled seedlings (12x). As the result, these chromosome-doubled seedlings (12x) showed lower stomatal density and larger stomatal size. - COLLAPSE
    October 2018
  • Research Article

    Exploring Responses to Light in the Monocot Model Plant, Brachypodium distachyon
    Quynh-Giao Tran†, Yun-Jeong Han†, Ok-Jin Hwang, Quyen T. N. Hoang, Jeong-Il Kim
    Brachypodium distachyon has been developed as a monocot model plant for temperate grasses and bioenergy crops. Although B. distachyon research is moving ... + READ MORE
    Brachypodium distachyon has been developed as a monocot model plant for temperate grasses and bioenergy crops. Although B. distachyon research is moving forward rapidly, the study of photoresponses has not been explored. To extend our knowledge of responses to light in monocots, we performed photoresponse analysis of B. distachyon using two inbred lines, Bd21 and Bd21-3. In this study, we first compared growing phenotypes between the two lines and investigated coleoptile and primary leaf growths under dark, far-red, red, and white light conditions. The results showed that the growth of the two lines were similar until tillering stage, but other developmental stages from heading to senescence were much delayed in Bd21-3, which resulted in increased height and tiller numbers. Under different light conditions, primary leaf lengths were kept increasing during the growth period, whereas the coleoptile extension was inhibited 4 to 7 days after growth depending on the light conditions applied. These results suggest that the responses to light in B. distachyon can be examined by measuring coleoptile lengths approximately 7 days after seedling growth. Moreover, we selected light-responsive genes known in Arabidopsis thaliana, such as chlorophyll A/B binding protein (CAB), light-harvesting chlorophyll binding protein (Lhcb) and chalcone synthase (CHS), and confirmed their light-induced gene expression in B. distachyon. Therefore, the present study suggests that the inhibition of coleoptile growth can be used as the parameter to analyze photoresponses in the monocot model plant, and also provide the reference genes whose expression is induced by far-red and red light treatment. - COLLAPSE
    October 2018
  • Research Article

    Nucleotide Polymorphisms of Cytochrome P450 Genes in Domestic Garlic Cultivars

    국내 재배마늘의 Cytochrome P450 유전자의 염기다형성 분포

    Soon-Tae Kwon, Jinbo Chung

    권순태, 정진보

    This study was carried to survey distribution of the nucleotide polymorphisms in heme-binding (HB) domain, which is highly conserved region between 1,210 ... + READ MORE
    This study was carried to survey distribution of the nucleotide polymorphisms in heme-binding (HB) domain, which is highly conserved region between 1,210 and 1,240 bp of cytochrome P450, in domestic garlic cultivars. 120 garlic cultivars collected from Korea were classified into seven HB domain variation based on the nucleotide sequence of the domain. Northern type garlic cultivars, collected from Kyungpook, Chungnam, Chungpook and Kangwon province, showed 51.3% of KP2 type nucleotide sequence, 5'-TTT/GGC/GGT/GGA/CGG/AGA/ATA/TGT/CCT/GGA-3' with coding amino acid FGGGRRICPG, 13.7% of KP1, 11.3% of CP, 8.8% of CM and 5% of KW2 types. Southern type cultivars, collected from Kyungnam province, showed 52.5% of KM type nucleotide sequence, 5'-TTT/GGC/GCA/GGA/CGG/AGA/ATT/TGT/CCT/GGA-3' with coding amino acid FGAGRRICPG, 22.5% of KP2, 5.0% of KW2 and 2,5% of CP type nucleotide sequence. These results showed that Korean garlics were cultivated in highly mixed condition even in the same region. - COLLAPSE
    October 2018
  • Research Article

    Intraplant Variations of Sesquiterpene Lactone Content in Lettuce Genetic Resources Grown in Two Cultivation Seasons
    Awraris Derbie Assefa, Susanna Choi, Jung-Sook Sung, On-Sook Hur, Na-Young Ro, Sok Young Lee, Ho-Sun Lee, Jae Eun Lee, Ju-Hee Rhee
    Inflorescence, stem, and leaf samples of lettuce grown in a greenhouse in spring and autumn seasons were assayed for sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) ... + READ MORE
    Inflorescence, stem, and leaf samples of lettuce grown in a greenhouse in spring and autumn seasons were assayed for sesquiterpene lactones (SLs) content by high performance liquid chromatography. The concentrations of SLs were significantly higher in the inflorescences followed by upper leaf and stem compared to the other plant parts in most of the samples. SLs content (sum of lactucin and lactucopicrin) in various tissues of lettuce cultivated in spring season varied from 5.7 to 22.5 fold ranging from 27.4 ㎍/g dry weight (DW) in the upper stem (cultivar “PI 176588”) as the lowest to as high as 2,292.0 ㎍/g DW in the inflorescence (cultivar “709849-1”). During autumn cultivation, the concentration of SLs varied from 2.0 to 14.4 fold ranging from as low of 32.4 ㎍/g DW in the lower stem (cultivar “PI176588”) to as high of 838.0 ㎍/g DW in the upper leaf (cultivar “Dambaesangchu”). Higher lactucin (1.2 to 5.6 fold) and lactucopicrin (1.1 to 3.9 fold) concentration was observed during spring compared to autumn cultivation in most of the samples. SLs content in various organs of lettuce increases from the basal plant part going upwards. As lactucin and lactucopicrin are the major SLs which affects the sensory property of lettuce, their quantitative variation in the lettuce cultivars is useful for breeding new varieties with better consumer acceptance. - COLLAPSE
    October 2018
  • Research Article

    Enhancement of Melanin Synthesis by the Branch Extracts of Vaccinium oldhamii through Activating Tyrosinase Activity in B16F10 Melanoma Cells
    Kun Ho Son†, Jueng Kyu Baek†, Su Bin Park, Ha Na Kim, Gwang Hun Park, Ho-Jun Son, Hyun Ji Eo, Jeong Ho Song, Hyung Jin Jeong, Jin Boo Jeong
    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of branch extracts of Vaccinium oldhamii (VOB) on melanin synthesis in B16F10 cells. VOB ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of branch extracts of Vaccinium oldhamii (VOB) on melanin synthesis in B16F10 cells. VOB promoted melanin production in absence or presence of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in B16F10 cells. However, VOB did not affect the expression of tyrosinase and TRP-1 associated with melanin synthesis at the mRNA and protein levels in B16F10. But, VOB decreased TRP-2 protein level and induced tyrosinase activation in B16F10 cells. Inhibition of tyrosinase activity and tyrosinase knockdown attenuated VOB-mediated melanin synthesis. In conclusion, VOB may stimulate melanin synthesis through activating tyrosinase activity. - COLLAPSE
    October 2018
  • Research Article

    The Floristic Study of Mt. Bonghwa (Yanggu-gun, Gangwon-do) Area Adjacent to the Korean Demilitarized Zone

    DMZ에 인접한 봉화산 일대의 관속식물 분포 연구

    Sang Jun Kim, Hyun Tak Shin, Jong Bin An, Jung Won Yoon, Su Young Jung, Jun Woo Lee, Tae Im Heo

    김상준, 신현탁, 안종빈, 윤정원, 정수영, 이준우, 허태임

    Mt. Bonghwa reaches a height of 800 m (2,870 ft) and stands on the flank of Mt. Daeam-san, which has an elevation ... + READ MORE
    Mt. Bonghwa reaches a height of 800 m (2,870 ft) and stands on the flank of Mt. Daeam-san, which has an elevation of 1,304 m (4,278 ft). It is important to survey the flora of Bonghwa-san in that it is a way to make out what kind of plant species exist in DMZ due to the geographical characteristics of Bonghwa-san adjacent to Korean DMZ. Therefore this study was conducted to elucidate the distribution of vascular plants and their value of Bonghwa-san. The vascular plants that were collected 10 times from May 2015 to April 2017 consisted of a total of 525 taxa; 93 families, 309genera, 458 species, 4 subspecies, 58 varieties and 5 forms. The observed rare plant species as designated by Korea Forest Service were 12 taxa including Echinosophora koreensis, Epimedium koreanum, Anemone koraiensis etc. Endemic species were 16 taxa containing Cirsium setidens, Heloniopsis koreana, Salvia chanryoenica etc. 31 taxa were recorded as naturalized plants and their naturalized rate and urban index were noted as 5.8% and 7.25%. Among the surveyed 525 taxa, edible, medicinal, pasturing, ornamental, timber, dye, fiber and industrial plants included 213 taxa, 172 taxa, 196 taxa, 50 taxa, 23 taxa, 10 taxa, 6 taxa and 3 taxa, respectively. - COLLAPSE
    October 2018
  • Research Article

    Vascular Plants of Mt. Manhobong in Mt. Tohamsan District, Gyeongju National Park

    경주국립공원 토함산지구 내 만호봉 일대의 관속식물상

    Ju Han You, Soon Young Kwon

    유주한, 권순영

    The purpose of this study is to provide the baseline data for conservation and management of the ecosystem of Gyeongju National Park ... + READ MORE
    The purpose of this study is to provide the baseline data for conservation and management of the ecosystem of Gyeongju National Park by surveying and analysing the vascular plants distributed in Mt. Manhongbong (522 m). The vascular plants were surveyed form May 2012 to August 2017. The vascular plants on this site was classified as follow. Based on voucher specimens, the vascular plants of this site consisted of 91 families, 292 genera, 397 species, 4 subspecies, 48 varieties and 8 forms. The 2 taxa of threatened species, 11 taxa of rare plants and 14 taxa of Korean endemic plants were investigated. The specific plants by floristic region were totally 39 taxa, which were 3 taxa of grade V, 5 taxa of grade IV, 2 taxa of grade III, 11 taxa of grade II and 18 taxa of grade I. The naturalized plants were identified as 33 taxa and the percentage of naturalized index (NI) was 7.2%, and urbanized index (UI) was 10.3%, respectively. The invasive alien plants were 2 taxa, such as Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. and Aster pilosus Willd. - COLLAPSE
    October 2018