• Research Article

    Combination of Grapefruit and Rosemary Extracts Has Skin Protective Effect through MMPs, MAPKs, and the NF-κB Signaling Pathway In Vitro and In Vivo UVB-exposed Model
    Yeo-Cho Yoon, Hee-Jeong Choi, Ji-Hyun Park, Nurud Diniyah, Hyun-A Shin and Mi-Yeon Kim
    Long-term ultraviolet (UV) exposure accelerates the phenomenon of skin photo-aging by activating collagenase and elastase. In this study, we aimed to investigate ... + READ MORE
    Long-term ultraviolet (UV) exposure accelerates the phenomenon of skin photo-aging by activating collagenase and elastase. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of a combination of grapefruit and rosemary extracts (cG&Re) on UVB-irradiated damage in HaCaT cells and dorsal mouse skin. In HaCaT cells, cG&Re recovered UVB-reduced cell viability and inhibited protein expression of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), such as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (p-Erk), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (p-JNK), and a class of MAPKs (p-P38). Also, cG&Re suppressed UVB-induced collagen and elastin degradation by decreasing matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) expression, which is a transcription factor. Similar results were observed in dorsal mouse skin. Taken together, our data indicate that cG&Re prevent UVB-induced skin photo-aging due to collagen/elastin degradation via activation of MAPKs, MMPs, and the NF-κB signaling pathway in vitro and in vivo. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Comparative Analysis of Chloroplast Genome of Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants Understanding Phylogenetic Relationship in Genus Dysphania R. Br.
    Yongsung Kim, Jongsun Park and Youngjae Chung
    Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants which belongs to Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae sensu in APG system has been known as a useful plant in various fields as well as an invasive species spreading all over the world. To understand its phylogenetic relationship with neighbour species, we completed chloroplast genome of D. ambrosioides collected in Korea. Its length is 151,689 bp consisting of four sub-regions: 83,421 bp of large single copy (LSC) and 18,062 bp of small single copy (SSC) regions are separated by 25,103 bp of inverted repeat (IR) regions. 128 genes (84 protein-coding genes, eight rRNAs, and 36 tRNAs) were annotated. The overall GC content of the chloroplast genome is 36.9% and those in the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 34.9%, 30.3%, and 42.7%, respectively. Distribution of simple sequence repeats are similar to those of the other two Dysphania chloroplasts; however, different features can be utilized for population genetics. Nucleotide diversity of Dysphania chloroplast genomes 18 genes ... + READ MORE
    Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & Clemants which belongs to Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae sensu in APG system has been known as a useful plant in various fields as well as an invasive species spreading all over the world. To understand its phylogenetic relationship with neighbour species, we completed chloroplast genome of D. ambrosioides collected in Korea. Its length is 151,689 bp consisting of four sub-regions: 83,421 bp of large single copy (LSC) and 18,062 bp of small single copy (SSC) regions are separated by 25,103 bp of inverted repeat (IR) regions. 128 genes (84 protein-coding genes, eight rRNAs, and 36 tRNAs) were annotated. The overall GC content of the chloroplast genome is 36.9% and those in the LSC, SSC and IR regions are 34.9%, 30.3%, and 42.7%, respectively. Distribution of simple sequence repeats are similar to those of the other two Dysphania chloroplasts; however, different features can be utilized for population genetics. Nucleotide diversity of Dysphania chloroplast genomes 18 genes including two ribosomal RNAs contains high nucleotide diversity peaks, which may be genus or species-specific manner. Phylogenetic tree presents that D. ambrosioides occupied a basal position in genus Dysphania and phylogenetic relation of tribe level is presented clearly with complete chloroplast genomes. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    The Anti-inflammatory Mechanism of the Peel of Zanthoxylum piperitum D.C. is by Suppressing NF-κB/Caspase-1 Activation in LPS-Induced RAW264.7 Cells
    Yun-Hee Choi and Noh-Yil Myung
    Zanthoxylum piperitum D.C. (ZP) peels has been used as a natural spice and herb medicine for hypertension reduction, for strokes, and ... + READ MORE
    Zanthoxylum piperitum D.C. (ZP) peels has been used as a natural spice and herb medicine for hypertension reduction, for strokes, and for its anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant activity. However, the anti-inflammatory mechanisms employed by ZP have yet to be completely understood. In this study, we elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of ZP in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. We evaluated the effects of ZP in LPS-induced levels of inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and caspase-1 using ELISA. The expression levels of inflammatory- related genes, including cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were assayed by Western blot analysis. We elucidated the effect of ZP on nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation by means of a luciferase activity assay. The findings of this study demonstrated that ZP inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokine and PGE2 and inhibited the increased levels of COX-2 and iNOS caused by LPS. Additionally, we showed that the anti-inflammatory effect of ZP arises by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and caspase-1 in LPS- induced RAW264.7 cells. These results provide novel insights into the pharmacological actions of ZP as a potential candidate for development of new drugs to treat inflammatory diseases. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Leaf Thinning and Fruit Quality of ‘Hongro’/M.9 Apple Trees by Foliar Application of Cu-EDTA and Fe-EDTA
    Heon-Kyu Lim, Hyunsuk Shin, In-Chang Son, Youngjae Oh, Keumsun Kim, Sung-Il Oh, Sewon Oh and Daeil Kim
    Hand leaf thinning for improvement of fruit coloration and quality is one of the most labor-consuming works in Korean apple cultivation. The ... + READ MORE
    Hand leaf thinning for improvement of fruit coloration and quality is one of the most labor-consuming works in Korean apple cultivation. The study was aimed at investigating whether foliar application of two chelate compounds (Cu-EDTA, Fe-EDTA) could defoliate effectively ‘Hongro’/M.9 apple leaves and enhance fruit coloration and quality. At 30 days before harvest, foliar spray with two chelate compounds defoliated significantly the apple leaves. Chelate treatments did not affect the leaf chlorophyll content. High concentration of chelates decreased drastically photosynthetic rate of true leaves, and then it stayed in low levels, whereas low levels of chelates reduced sharply the photosynthetic rate but it was gradually restored over time. Cu-EDTA regardless of its concentration triggered higher defoliation compared to Fe-EDTA. Consequently, higher defoliation improved light interception of fruits and accumulated more anthocyanin. Particularly, Cu-EDTA could target mainly fruit cluster leaves which affect directly light interception of the fruits, i.e. more selective defoliants compared to Fe-EDTA. However, 3% Cu-EDTA rather defoliated excessively, accompanying with reduction of fruit weight and soluble solids. Therefore, our results suggest that 1% Cu-EDTA which defoliates properly the fruit cluster leaves could improve coloration and quality of ‘Hongro’/M.9 apple fruits. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Effect of the Cold Treatment Period on a Plant’s Dormancy Breaking in the Winter Production of Gomchwi’s New Varieties (Ligularia fischeri (Ledeb.) Turcz)
    Jong Taek Suh, Ki Deog Kim, Su Jeong Kim, Hwang Bae Sohn, Su Young Hong and Yul Ho Kim
    This study was conducted to determine the number of days required to break a plant’s dormancy and promote subsequent crop growth ... + READ MORE
    This study was conducted to determine the number of days required to break a plant’s dormancy and promote subsequent crop growth in new varieties of Gomchwi through the 4℃ treatment. Three new varieties of Gomchwi namely, ‘Sammany’, ‘Gommany’, and ‘Damogy’ were observed in this study. The rate of leaf emergence of ‘Sammany’ after 15-day of 4℃ treatment was 100%, while ‘Gommany’, and ‘Damogy’ took 20-days and 10-days, respectively to reach to 97.9% rate of leaf emergence. After 10-days of 4℃ treatment, ‘Damogy’ grew faster than the other varieties. and Harvest time for ‘Damogy’ was on January 18th, after 5-days of 4℃ treatment and yield was observed to be the highest at 15-days of 4℃ treatment. ‘Sammany’ was next with a minimum of 10-days of 4℃ treatment, although 15-days is more preferred for better harvest. ‘Gommany’ on the other hand, did not grow enough for harvest by January 18th, and its harvest time was delayed to January 31st. It needed a minimum of 15-days and preferentially 20-days of 4℃ treatment to grow normally and be ready for harvest. The plant height, leaf length and leaf petiole length appeared to grow better by extending duration of the 4℃ treatment. The number of leaves of ‘Sammany’ and ‘Gommany’ varieties was three leaves for the 5-days treatment which may be due to the incomplete breaking of dormancy. Regarding the yield per plant, ‘Sammany’ yielded 112.3 grams (g) in 15-days treatment, and ‘Gommany’ yielded 106.5 g in 25-days treatment. In the case of ‘Damogy’, it yielded 123.5 g and 183 g in the 10-days and 25-days treatment respectively. It is concluded that ‘Damogy’, ‘Sammany’ and ‘Gommany requires 10, 15, and 20 days of 4℃ treatment to break the plant’s dormancy and promote better plant growth. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Cryopreservation of in vitro Grown Shoot Tips of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) Genetic Resources by Droplet-vitrification
    Young-Yi Lee, Kotnala Balaraju, Jae-Young Song, Jung-Yoon Yi, Sun-Yi Lee, Jung-Ro Lee, Munsup Yoon and Haeng-Hoon Kim
    This study describes an efficient and widely applicable droplet-vitrification following cryopreservation for shoot tips of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cvs. ‘Wonkyo3114’ and ... + READ MORE
    This study describes an efficient and widely applicable droplet-vitrification following cryopreservation for shoot tips of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) cvs. ‘Wonkyo3114’ and ‘Gurumi40’. The shoot tips were precultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) liquid medium supplemented with sucrose (0.3-0.5M). Precultured explants were osmoprotected with loading solution (LS, C4) containing 20% glycerol and 20% sucrose for 40 min and exposed to dehydration solution (B5) containing 40% glycerol and 40% sucrose for 40 min at 25℃, Subsequently, the explants were transferred onto droplets containing 2.5 µL PVS3 on sterilized aluminum foils (4 ㎝ × 0.5 ㎝) prior to direct immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN) for 1 h. The highest regrowth rate (%) in both the cultivars was obtained when the shoot tips were precultured with MS + 0.3M sucrose for 40 h at 25℃. The cryopreserved shoots tips exhibited 55% regrowth rate by culturing in NH4NO3-free MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose, 1.0 g/L casein, 1.0㎎/L GA3, and 0.5 ㎎/L BA for 5 weeks and in MS medium supplemented with 0.5 ㎎/L GA3 for 8 weeks. This result shows that droplet-vitrification could be employed as a promising method for cryostorage of strawberry germplasm. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Anti-inflammatory Effect of Branches Extracts from Quercus mongolica in LPS-induced RAW264.7 Cells
    Hyun Ji Eo, Youngki Park, Jin Taek Kang and Gwang Hun Park
    Quercus mongolica (QM), which belongs to fagaceae, is one of the oak native to Korea. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of branches ... + READ MORE
    Quercus mongolica (QM), which belongs to fagaceae, is one of the oak native to Korea. We evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of branches extracted with 70% ethanol of QM (QM-B) and elucidated the potential signaling pathway in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. The QM-B showed anti-inflammatory activity through inhibition of NO production. The QM-B dose-dependently suppressed NO production by inhibiting iNOS, COX-2 and IL-6 expression in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. The QM-B inhibited the degradation and phosphorylation of IκB-α and NF-κB activation. The QM-B suppressed the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2. Also, the QM-B increased HO-1 expression. These results suggested that QM-B may utilize anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathway and inducing HO-1 expression indicated that the QM-B can be used as a natural anti-inflammatory drugs. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    The Beneficial Effect of Avocado on Skin Inflammation in a Mouse Model of AD-like Skin Lesions
    Noh-Yil Myung and Su-Jin Kim
    Avocado, superfood, contains a variety of essential nutrients and phytochemicals. The purpose of this study was to explore whether avocado could modulate ... + READ MORE
    Avocado, superfood, contains a variety of essential nutrients and phytochemicals. The purpose of this study was to explore whether avocado could modulate skin inflammation in vivo. We elucidated the pharmacological effects of avocado on compound 48/80- or histamine-induced scratching behaviors and 2, 4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in mice. Additionally, we investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of avocado and its underlying mechanism including its effect on the expression levels of inflammatory-related genes and nuclear factor -κB (NF-κB) in DNCB-induced AD-like skin lesions. The findings of this study demonstrate that avocado attenuated AD clinical symptoms including itching, eczematous, erythema and dryness and histamine levels in mice. Moreover, avocado suppressed both inflammatory cytokines expression as well as NF-κB and caspase-1 activation in AD-like skin lesions in mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate that avocado may be a potential candidate for treating skin inflammatory diseases like AD. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    The Protective and Inhibitory Effect of Antioxidants Found in Broussonetia kazinoki Siebold against Oxidative DNA Damage
    Tae-Won Jang, Ji-Soo Choi, Hoi-Ki Kim, Eun-Ja Lee, Ki-Beom Lee, Tae-Hyung Kwon, Do-Wan Kim, Jeong-Jwa Ahn and Jae-Ho Park
    Oxidative DNA damage negatively affects humans and the research is currently ongoing to find ways to reduce oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has ... + READ MORE
    Oxidative DNA damage negatively affects humans and the research is currently ongoing to find ways to reduce oxidative stress. Oxidative stress has been identified as a key factor in triggering various diseases. Thus, its alleviation is important for human health. Broussonetia kazinoki (B. kazinoki) has been used in traditional Korean medicine as a dermatological therapy to treat burns, pruritus, and acne. B. kazinoki is generally segregated into peeled root (PR), root bark (RB), peeled stem (PS), and stem bark (SB). To assess these components for their antioxidant activity and protection against DNA damage, their ethyl acetate fractions were examined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assay. As a result of confirming the expression of factors involved in attenuating DNA damage, the protective effect of SB on oxidative stress suppressed the expression of p-p53 and γ-H2AX. Additionally, the levels of p53 and H2AX mRNA were significantly downregulated. In conclusion, these results indicated that the SB component of B. kazinoki had the potential to be used as an effective natural antioxidant compared to the other parts of the plant. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Effect of Microwave Assisted Water Extraction on Insoluble Phenolic Compounds through Bioactivity of Fagopyrum esculentum
    Hyun Gi Kim, Yong Ju Kim, Thang Tung Lian, Sueng Yeob Song and Kuek Soo Bang
    Fagopyrum esculentum (Buckwheat) is a globally used alternative crop that contains several useful substances with various effects; however, many of these substances ... + READ MORE
    Fagopyrum esculentum (Buckwheat) is a globally used alternative crop that contains several useful substances with various effects; however, many of these substances (rutin, quercetin, etc.) are water insoluble. To extract these substances, alcohols is required, which is inconvenient because these solvents cause diverse problems. Many studies are underway to achieve effective extraction of these substances with water. Among of these studies, microwave assisted water extraction (MAE) has been performed extensively. In this study, we performed the extraction in various solvents and/or microwave from Fagopyrum esculentum. The analysis of the content of useful substances and the bioactivity were performed and shown to increase in MAE. Liquid chromatography-mass was performed in order to identify of the useful water-insoluble substances. Catechin, quercetin, and rutin, which are all insoluble in water, were hardly extracted with water even on heating (4.4 ppb, 3.9 ppb and 60.3 ppb, respectively). However, MAE was found to extract much more of these substances than water (1204 ppb, 110.8 ppb and 2946 ppb, respectively). Although less efficient than alcohols, MAE showed much higher efficiency than simple water extraction. These results indicate that water extraction using microwave technology is effective in cases where it is difficult to extract useful substances using water. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    An Efficient in vitro Micropropagation for Production of Disease-free Bulbs in Korean Native Lilium
    Jae-Young Song, Jung-Yoon Yi, Mun-Sup Yoon, Jung-Ro Lee and Young-Yi Lee
    Cryopreservation is one of the ideal and suitable methods for long-term storage of plant germplasm. The plant contaminated with diseases and pathogens ... + READ MORE
    Cryopreservation is one of the ideal and suitable methods for long-term storage of plant germplasm. The plant contaminated with diseases and pathogens are decreased the multiplication rate, survival rate and high quality of plants after cryopreservation. The aim of this work was to improve a micropropagation method for lily in Korea, which is indigenous plant. In the last process of rinsing scales after surface-sterilization, we tried to control the diseases and pathogens lived within the tissue by rinsing in 0.03% sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) instead of sterile distilled water. Bulb scales of Lilium were cultured in vitro on MS medium supplemented with Plant Preservative Mixture (PPM). The results showed that L. tsingtauense accessions were observed ranged from 53.9 to 100% with a mean value of 76.8% and L. hansonii accessions were checked from 84.5 to 85.5% with a mean of 85% survival rate. The newly small bulb formed from bulb-scales was transferred to MS medium. We checked the presence of microorganisms and survival rate after 3 weeks in culture after examination of bacterial incidences. The results indicated that the non-contamination rate were shown ranged from 75.0 to 94.1% with mean value of 83.2% in L. tsingtauense species, and that L. hansonii were observed 85.1 to 91.7% with mean value of 88.4%. This study will provide a valuable basis for establishment of effective axenic cultures for in vitro micropropagation of Korean native lily species. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Gametophyte Propagation and Sporophyte Formation of Asian Chain Fern [Woodwardia japonica (L. f.) Sm.] Under Various Medium Conditions In Vitro and Ex Vitro
    Ju Sung Cho, Bo Kook Jang, Kyungtae Park, Ha Min Lee and Cheol Hee Lee
    This study investigated a suitable method that could be applied for Asian chain fern [Woodwardia japonica (L. f.) Sm.] to propagate gametophytes ... + READ MORE
    This study investigated a suitable method that could be applied for Asian chain fern [Woodwardia japonica (L. f.) Sm.] to propagate gametophytes and promote sporophyte formation. The gametophytes used in all experiments were obtained from germinated spores in vitro and were subcultured at 8-week intervals. The most appropriate media for gametophyte propagation was identified by culturing 300 ㎎ of gametophyte in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium (1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2), and Knop medium for 8 weeks. As a result, fresh weight of the gametophyte was increased by 56.7-fold on MS medium. Moreover, antheridium formation as well as gametophyte growth was improved on MS medium, especially. To improve the sporophyte formation ex vitro, 1.0 g of gametophyte was ground with distilled water and spread on eight combinations onto four different culture mediums, such as bed soil, peat moss, perlite and decomposed granite. Then generation and growth of sporophytes were investigated after cultivation for 10 weeks. As a result of this experiment, peat moss had a promotive effect of sporophyte formation at single-use and mixed culture soils. In particular, a mixture of bed soil, peat moss and perlite in a 1:1:1 ratio (v/v/v) led to the accelerated formation (782.5 ea/pot) and the frond growth of sporophytes. This included increases in length and width of fronds. However, promotive effect of gametophyte growth and sporophyte formation was not found at single-use and treatment with high ratio of bed soil. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    Screening of Sclerotinia Rot Resistant Korean Origin Perilla (Perilla frutescens) Germplasm Using a Detached Leaf Method
    Ho-Sun Lee, Tania Afroz, Young-Ah Jeon, Jung-Sook Sung, Ju-Hee Rhee, Awraris Derbie Aseefa, Jaejong Noh, Aejin Hwang, On-Sook Hur, Na-Young Ro and Jae-Eun Lee
    Sclerotinia rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating disease that poses a serious threat to perilla production in Korea. Identifying effective ... + READ MORE
    Sclerotinia rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a devastating disease that poses a serious threat to perilla production in Korea. Identifying effective sources of resistance offers long term prospects for improving management of this disease. Screening disease resistant genetic resources is important for development of disease-resistant, new cultivars and conduct related research. In the present study, perilla germplasm were screened in vitro against S. sclerotiorum using detached leaf method. Among 544 perilla accessions, two were highly resistant (IT226504, IT226533), five were resistant (IT226561, IT226532, IT226526, IT226441, and IT226589), five were moderately resistant (IT226525, IT226640, IT226568, IT220624, and IT178655), 16 were moderately susceptible, 31 were susceptible, and 485 were highly susceptible. The resistant accessions in this study could serve as resistance donor in the breeding of Sclerotinia rot resistance or subjected to selection procedure of varietal development for direct use by breeders, farmers, researchers, and end consumers. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019
  • Research Article

    A New Record for Invasive Alien Plant Ranunculus sardous Crantz (Ranunculaceae) in the Republic of Korea
    Eun-Mi Sun, Hye-Won Kim, Kang-Hyup Lee, Hee Soo Kim and Dong Chan Son
    The establishment of invasive alien species management is widely recognized as a pivotal issue in the preservation of biodiversity. Ranunculus sardous Crantz ... + READ MORE
    The establishment of invasive alien species management is widely recognized as a pivotal issue in the preservation of biodiversity. Ranunculus sardous Crantz, a species native to Europe, has been widely introduced in many other areas of the world, including the coasts of the United States, Australia, China, India, and Japan. In Korea, the first population of this plant was found growing adjacent to a wetland in Hanon, Seogwipo-si, Jeju Province, on 22 May 2018. Field observations confirmed the presences of at least two populations of this species in Jeju Province, Korea. This species is similar to Ranunculus sceleratus L., but can be readily distinguished by its presence of the trichomes in the whole plant, longer petioles of radical leaves, ovate-shaped leaf segments, globose to subglobose-shaped fruits and flat achenes with narrowly winged and papillae. The Invasive Alien Plant Risk Assessment (IAPRA), a system for recognizing and categorizing alien plants in Korea forests, was used to assess the invasiveness status of the species. Based on this system, R. sardous received a low score of 6, suggesting its potential invasion to natural forests. Although the current distribution of R. sardous is restricted to Jeju Province and thus far has had limited impact on local environments, local and regulatory authorities should pay close attention to this plant and take measures to prevent its further expansion. - COLLAPSE
    December 2019